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Football is one of the most popular and widely played sports in the world, with millions of fans and athletes spread across all continents.

But how did this collective passion for a game that involves a ball and two goalposts come about? What are the basic rules and the main fundamentals?

In this complete and up-to-date guide, we’ll answer these and other questions, presenting everything you need to know about football, such as history, positions, pitch dimensions, infractions and more.

Check it out 👇

What is football?

Football is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players each, in which the main objective is to score goals against the opposition.

The game is played on a rectangular pitch with goals at the ends. The teams therefore compete to control the ball using their feet, head and occasionally other parts of the body except the hands (with the exception of the goalkeeper, who can use his hands inside his area).

Football is known for its simplicity and accessibility, and can be played anywhere with an open space. All you need is a ball.

How did football come about?

posições do futebol
How did football come about?

Football is a sport that doesn’t have a well-defined origin, as there are records of similar games played by different ancient peoples, such as the Chinese, Greeks and Romans.

However, modern football, with the rules we know today, emerged in England in 1863, when the Football Association was founded in London.

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This organisation established the sport’s first rules, based on a common code drawn up by the heads of various English schools.

The practice thus became popular in the UK. Over time, it became professionalised and won several championships, such as the FA Cup, the oldest football competition in the world.

It didn’t take long for the sport to expand its popularity outside of England. From the 20th century onwards, football became a fever all over the world.

Regras do futebol

Os jogos de futebol são disputados num campo retangular dividido ao meio. Cada equipa, composta por 11 jogadores, senta-se de um lado.

O objetivo central é marcar golos contra os adversários. Isto acontece quando a bola ultrapassa a linha de golo. Os golos podem ser marcados com os pés, qualquer parte da perna ou da anca, a cabeça e o ombro. Apenas os braços e as mãos não são permitidos (com exceção do guarda-redes).

Ao contrário dos jogadores de linha, os guarda-redes têm a missão de manter as bolas longe da sua baliza.

Os jogos são divididos em duas partes de 45 minutos cada. No intervalo, há uma pausa de 15 minutos para hidratação e ajustes tácticos.

No final do tempo regulamentar, o jogo é ganho por quem tiver marcado mais golos. Em caso de empate, pode haver um prolongamento ou um desempate por grandes penalidades, se o campeonato for eliminatório.

Football fundamentals

Football fundamentals
  • Movement
  • Passing
  • Shooting
  • Dribbling
  • Marking
  • Positioning


In matches, players can’t stand still. They need to move all the time, either walking or running. This makes it possible to play both offence and defence.


A pass is the act of touching the ball to a team-mate. This movement can be done in a variety of ways: low, at half-height, over the top, with the side of the foot, with a triangle, strong, weak – and so on.

It’s thanks to passing that teams are able to construct moves and behave in an organised manner on the pitch.


Shooting is the act of finalising a move, i.e. with the aim of scoring a goal. It can be executed with the feet or the head. There are kicks from outside the area, low kicks, curved kicks, etc.


Dribbles are quick, coordinated and skilful movements to deceive your opponent and create attacking opportunities.


Marking consists of following opponents around the pitch in order to shorten their spaces. The aim is to prevent them from reaching the Allied goal.


Positioning in football is knowing where to be on the pitch, both defensively and offensively, to maximise individual and collective effectiveness.

Football positions

posiçoes futebol
Football positions
  • Goalkeeper
  • Centre-back
  • Full-back
  • Defensive midfielder
  • Midfielder
  • Winger
  • Striker


The goalkeeper is the only player authorised to use his hands inside the penalty area. Their main responsibility is to prevent the ball from entering the goal.


The centre-back is a defensive player.He is usually tall and strong, precisely to share balls with opponents, make tackles and keep out danger. He plays in the centre of defence.


The full-back is a defender who operates on the sides of the defence. As well as protecting the defence, he must also support the attack with passes, shots and crosses.

Defensive midfielder

The defensive midfielder is the most defensive midfield player a team can have. Their aim is to pass the ball around and protect the defence.


The midfielder has more freedom than the centre-half. They need to specialise in passing to get the ball to the strikers.


The winger is an attacking player who plays on the edge of the pitch. By nature they are fast, skilful and incisive.


The striker is the most offensive player a team can have.Their job is to push the ball into the net. They are usually the team’s top scorers.

Equipment used in football

Official football clothing consists of: shirts (short or long sleeved), shorts, socks, boots and shin pads. This is the compulsory equipment.

There are also optional items, such as thermal clothing that goes under the uniform, mouthguards, muscle containment tapes, among others.

What does the football pitch look like?

  • The length should be between 100 and 110 metres
  • The width should be between 64 and 75 metres
  • The side and end lines are located at the ends of the pitch
  • The centre line divides the pitch into two halves
  • Each end of the pitch has a goal. These are made up of two vertical posts, a horizontal bar and nets

Now you know all about football! Did you like this content? Leave your opinion in the comments! And don’t forget to visit us every day, eh? We publish fresh articles about games and sports as often as possible 👊

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